International Centre for Cruise Research
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Allen, William H.  "Increased Dangers to Caribbean Marine Ecosystems," BioScience, 1992, 42:5 (May), 330-35

Damage from cruise ship anchors is a serious threat to marine biomes in the Caribbean. An increasing number of medium-to-large cruise ships are entering shallow, environmentally sensitive areas and causing damage to coral reefs. Instances of anchor damage are described. Recovery of the coral and reef community varies, depending on the type of destruction and the type of coral. It is impossible to know how much reef damage has occurred and who or what is responsible, but marine resource managers are trying to find solutions such as permanent moorings and requirements that boats do not drop anchor. Public education can help solve the problem too.