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Courtney, Aaron.  "Multijurisdictional Regulation of Cruise Ship Discharges," Natural Resources & Environment, 2004, 19:1 (Summer), 50 - 56

Current standards under federal and international law applicable to three of the major types of cruise ship discharges to waters off the coastal US are critiqued: graywater, sewage or blackwater, and ballast water. Under EPA regulations, ordinary as well as nonroutine graywater discharges are exempt from the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements. The Clean Water Act also exempts blackwater discharges from NPDES permit requirements; MARPOL 73/78 is not applicable to blackwater. In response to intense public criticism, cruise ship discharges are in the midst of a regulatory metamorphosis, as regulators are now moving toward imposing operational and end-of-pipe standards on graywater and blackwater discharges.