International Centre for Cruise Research
A virtual centre for research and for researchers

Dwyer, Larry, Ngaire Douglas, and Zelko Livaic.  "Estimating the economic contribution of a cruise ship visit," Tourism in Marine Environments, 2004, 1:1, 5-16.

The international cruise industry has consistently recorded an average annual growth rate of 8.4% since 1980 with the fastest growth happening in the last decade.  However, while the domestic market is small -- some 50,000 Australians take a cruise annually -- Australia's cruise potential lies in the growing international recognition as a safe, interesting destination.  Measuring the economic impact of a cruise ship's visit is a challenging task.  Consideration must be given to whether it is a port of embarkation/disembarkation or a port of call only, and the facilities and infrastructure available for both ship operations and passenger needs.  This article provides estimates of cruise-related expenditure using data for Cairns in Far North Queensland.  A framework for classifying cruise related expenditure is developed.  The framework is, in principle, capable of application to estimate the economic impacts of cruise tourism in any port of call.

Dwyer, Larry and Peter Forsyth. "Economic significance of cruise tourism," Annals of Tourism Research, 1998, 25:2, 393-415

Cruise business is a growing segment of the international tourism market. While there have been studies of its economic impacts on a national level, the issues of the costs and benefits and their distribution have received scant attention. This paper develops a framework for assessing the economic impacts of cruise tourism for a nation and its subregions. It further explores how the framework can be used to estimate the relevant benefits and costs. A case study of cruise tourism in Australia shows how the framework can be implemented and discusses some policy implications. This analysis can facilitate future research, empirical studies, and strategy development relevant to cruise tourism.