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Gallimore, CI, Richards AF, Gray JJ.  "Molecular diversity of noroviruses associated with outbreaks on cruise ships: comparison with strains circulating within the UK," Communicable Disease and Public Health, Dec 2003, 6(4):285-93.

The molecular diversity of norovirus (NV) strains associated with 26 outbreaks of NV gastroenteritis has been determined. The outbreaks occurred on 14 cruise ships from seven cruise lines, during the period from 1998 to 2002. The ships cruised in seas worldwide, including the Mediterranean, the Baltic and the Caribbean. Genogroup I NVs were more common in the cruise ship setting than in hospitals, with 38% of the cruise ship outbreaks associated with genotype I NVs, as compared to < 10% in hospital and other semi-closed institutions in the UK. Outbreaks on cruise ships were more common in the period April to September, than in the winter. Two mixed genogroup I and II outbreaks were detected, which suggested contaminated food or water as the source of the infection.