for Cruise Research
centre for research and for
Gallimore, CI, Richards AF, Gray JJ. "Molecular diversity of
noroviruses associated with outbreaks on cruise ships: comparison with
strains circulating within the UK," Communicable
Disease and Public Health, Dec 2003, 6(4):285-93.
The molecular diversity of
norovirus (NV) strains associated with 26
outbreaks of NV gastroenteritis has been determined. The outbreaks
occurred on 14 cruise ships from seven cruise lines, during the period
from 1998 to 2002. The ships cruised in seas worldwide, including the
Mediterranean, the Baltic and the Caribbean. Genogroup I NVs were more
common in the cruise ship setting than in hospitals, with 38% of the
cruise ship outbreaks associated with genotype I NVs, as compared to
< 10% in hospital and other semi-closed institutions in the UK.
Outbreaks on cruise ships were more common in the period April to
September, than in the winter. Two mixed genogroup I and II outbreaks
were detected, which suggested contaminated food or water as the source
of the infection.