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Hall, J. A. and Braithwaite, R.  "Caribbean cruise tourism: A business of transnational partnerships,"  Tourism Management, 1990, 11:4, 339-347

The cruise industry grew dramatically during the 1980s to the extent that over four million North Americans will have opted for a cruise holiday in 1990. The paper discusses the growth of the industry in relation to the Caribbean. It traces the growth of cruise ship arrivals in Caribbean destinations since 1981 and outlines projections up to the year 2008. It then discusses the multiplier effects of the cruise ship dollar as opposed to the stopover arrival dollar. The Caribbean is perfectly placed to take advantage of this market but the governments concerned have not supported tourism development appropriate to the transnational cruise line operators. Cruise ship arrivals in the Caribbean are growing faster than stopover arrivals, so it is vital that the various Caribbean governments cooperate with the transnational cruise line operators in planning and providing the necessary infrastructure to tempt the cruise ship arrivals to spend their dollars at Caribbean destinations.