International Centre for Cruise Research
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Henthorne, T. L.  "An analysis of expenditures by cruise ship passengers in Jamaica," Journal of Travel Research, 2000, 38:3, 246-250

A study of 1500 cruise ship passengers while in port in Jamaica was conducted during a 5-year period. The research looks at how much money was actually spent by cruisers while in port as well as the influences on these expenditures. The results reveal that vendors who are perceived as friendly, helpful, and knowledgeable fare better than those who come across as manipulative and aggressive and that older consumers can be expected to spend more in port than their younger counterparts.