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Johnson, David.  "Environmentally sustainable cruise tourism: a reality check," Marine Policy, 2002, (26), 261-270

Cruise tourism continues to be a major international growth area. In terms of achieving sustainable tourism it is, therefore, a subsector within which socio-economic, cultural and environmental considerations need to be continually analysed, addressed and monitored. The environmental impacts of cruise tourism are categorised in this paper and potential strategies that can be employed by both cruise line operators and cruise tourism destinations are explored. Secondary evidence of action by both parties suggests that the industry is taking a number of belated positive steps. However, decision-makers in cruise tourism destinations, particularly those outside North America, need to work closely with operators to facilitate both integrated waste management and intergenerational and intra-societal equity rather than merely accept the prospect of short-term economic gain.