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Joseph, Stephen; Yule, William; Williams, Ruth.  "Emotional Processing in Survivors of the Jupiter Cruise Ship Disaster," Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1995, 33:2 (Feb), 187-192

To explore the relationship between intrusion & avoidance & symptoms of depression & anxiety, 23 survivors of the 1988 Jupiter cruise ship sinking completed the Impact of Events Scale, a measure of intrusion & avoidance, as well as measures of arousal & affect at 2 points: 3-7 months & 12-14 months following the event. The results suggest that although higher scores on intrusion & avoidance are strongly associated with poorer psychological outcome at each point in time, it is only intrusion that may be predictive of later symptoms. Findings are discussed with reference to a cognitive-emotional processing model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Joseph, Stephen; Yule, William; Williams, Ruth; Andrews, Bernice.  "Crisis Support in the Aftermath of Disaster: A Longitudinal Perspective," The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1993, 32:2 (May), 177-185

The impact of crisis support on posttraumatic symptomatology was examined via interview & questionnaire data obtained over an 18-month period from a sample of 17 adult survivors from GB of the 1988 Jupiter cruise ship disaster in Greece. Intrusion, but not avoidance, symptoms decreased significantly over the study period. Crisis support from family & friends followed the same pattern. Higher crisis support in the immediate aftermath of the disaster predicted less avoidance, but did not impact intrusion symptomatology at a later time period. Implications for the assessment & treatment of survivors at high risk of postdisaster disturbance are discussed.

Joseph, Steve A; Brewin, Chris R; Yule, William; Williams, Ruth.  "Causal Attributions and Post-Traumatic Stress in Adolescents," Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 1993, 34:2 (Feb), 247-253

Causal attributions made by adolescent survivors of the Jupiter cruise ship sinking in the Aegean Sea in Oct 1988 are linked with their symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder surfacing a year later. An attributional model of shame is developed, suggesting that attributing negative events during a disaster to causes under personal control leads to guilt & psychopathology. Inventory & scale data from 16 adolescent survivors (ages 13-15) & subsequent interviews allow coding of causal attributions & scoring of total anxiety & social desirability. It is found that the greater the internal attributions for negative disaster-related events, the more severe the symptoms expressed in posttraumatic stress. The finding that explanations have a self-presentational function supports other studies.