International Centre for Cruise Research
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Miller, W. H.   "The US cruise ship industry,"  Journal of Geography, 1985, 84:5, 199-204 

An analysis is made of the pattern, forms, and functions of the US cruise ship industry, highlighting that: (1) the role of the USA in this industry is that of a consumer, not a provider; (2) the cruise ship industry has developed into very big business only in the last 20-25 years; (3) there are major differences between the old ocean liner and the new cruise ship businesses (ship design, on-board facilities, ports of call, seasonality and shore excursions); (4) cruise ships sailing out of US ports in 1982/83 directly employed about 20 000 crew members; (5) although itineraries vary, 11 major cruise regions or routes can be recognized; (6) 3 categories of ports of call may be recognized based on the functions they perform (terminals, semiterminals and visits); (7) the major US seaports in the cruise ship business; and (8) the industry's future prospects which are encouraging.