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Petrick, J. F. and Sirakaya, E.  "Segmenting cruisers by loyalty,"  Annals of Tourism Research, 2004, 31:2, 472-475

The study reported in this research note aimed to operationalize tourist loyalty as a market segmentation tool utilizing both psychological and behavioural measures while recognizing differences between first-timers and repeaters. Participants were 792 cruise ship passengers (240 repeaters, 409 first-timers) sampled during two separate seven-day Caribbean voyages onboard the same ship. Repeaters were classified as "loyals" and "disloyals", while first-timers were classified as "satisfieds" and "unsatisfieds". Differences between the segments' perceived value, satisfaction, intentions, and word-of-mouth advertising were determined.