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Smith, S.H. "Cruise ships: A serious threat to coral reefs and associated organisms," Ocean Shoreline Manaement, 1988, 11:3, 231-248

Abstract: Qualitative and quantitative observations were made under cruise ships anchored over disturbed and undisturbed sections of reef off Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Measurements showed 3150m super(2) of previously intact reef destroyed by one cruise ship anchoring on one day. Follow-up observations were made after cruise ship departure and additional data from below cruise ships were collected for comparison. Recovery periods of more than fifty years are postulated.