International Centre for Cruise Research
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Yule, W., Tenbruggencate, S., Joseph, S.  "Principal components-analysis of the impact of events scale in adolescents who survived a shipping disaster," Personality and Individualk Differences, 1994, 16:5(May), 685-691

The Impact of Events Scale has become one of the most widely used instruments in the assessment of post-traumatic stress reactions in adults. However, its reliability and validity with adolescents remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to investigate its psychometric properties with a sample of 334 adolescent survivors of the Jupiter cruise ship disaster. Recent research with adults has found slight differences in the factor structure of the scale and these were confirmed in this study, Moreover, the factor structure appears to be different for girls and boys. It is concluded that scores on the Impact of Events Scale might reflect sex differences in reactions to traumatic events which may have important diagnostic implications.

Yule, W. "Post-traumatic stress disorder in child survivors of shipping disasters: the sinking of the 'Jupiter'," Psychother Psychosom, 1992, 57:4, 200-5

334 of over 400 children who survived the sinking of the cruise ship, Jupiter, in Athens harbour in October 1988 completed a battery of questionnaires 5-9 months later. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, they show significantly higher scores on depression and anxiety. They also report more fears, particularly of stimuli related to the trauma. Overall, their scores on the Impact of Events Scale are as high as those reported by adults in other disasters. Follow-up studies a year after the accident reveal that nearly half the children meet the DSM-III-R criteria for PTSD. The usefulness of this screening battery is discussed. Some evidence for the effects of early intervention in schools is presented.

Yule, William; Udwin, Orlee; Murdoch, Kirsa.  "The 'Jupiter' Sinking: Effects on Children's Fears, Depression and Anxiety," Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 1990, 31:7 (Nov), 1051-1061

Inventory, scale, & survey data are used to compare the development of fear, depression, & anxiety in children in 24 British girls ages 14-16 who survived the 1988 sinking of the cruise ship Jupiter in the Mediterranean & a control group of 71 girls of comparable socioeconomic, educational, & ethnic background. Findings reveal that cruise survivors' fears did not increase significantly overall, fears of stimuli related to the trauma, eg, ships, swimming, & water, did increase. A nonsignificant relationship was found between fears & anxiety, & between fears & depression.